(1985) Knee injuries in gymnastics.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3838151

A review of injury patterns to the knee joint in gymnastics seen at our sport medicine clinic over a six and one-half year period reveals the patellofemoral pain syndrome to be more than twice as frequent as any other type of injury. Sprains are second in frequency but first in order of problems requiring emergency surgical treatment. The intensity of training correlates with the various overuse syndrome encountered, and the perfection of intricate routines and tricks can lead to significant injury of ligaments and menisci.

http://www.sportsmed.org/uploadedFiles/Content/Medical_Professionals/

Professional_Educational_Resources/Publications_and_Resources/Sports_

Medicine_Update/SMU_2008/SMU%20Jan%20Feb%2008%20Web.pdf

(2008) Evaluation and Management of Gymnastic Injuries

Due to the large number of youth gymnasts training at high levels, both acute and overuse injuries are very common. In one epidemiologic study, it was noted that the average elite young female gymnast trains 5.36 days per week and 5.04 hours per day…

Due to the fact that the upper extremity is used as a weight-bearing joint in gymnastics, injuries to the shoulder and elbow are very common. A wide range of injuries can occur to these joints, but a few are more unique to gymnasts…

In conclusion, gymnastics is a very demanding sport for the athlete and for those involved in providing medical care. Gymnasts often suffer a significant number of injuries during their careers and to numerous body parts including the upper and lower extremities and the spine. Although many of these injuries are similar in nature to those suffered by elite athletes
in other sports, certain musculoskeletal injuries are much more common or unique to gymnastics.

http://www.everydayhealth.com/fitness-pictures/the-health-risks-of-high-school-sports.aspx

(2012) The Health Risks of High School Sports

Thirty to 40 million children and teens participate in organized sports annually, the American Academy of Pediatrics reports. Of those, millions are injured each year — though overall injury rates have declined over the past 40 years…

The injury rate per 100,000 participants remains highest for gymnasts — 6.96 female athletes are injured for every 100,000 and 6.14 male athletes are seriously injured for every 100,000. (In football, by contrast, only 0.80 per 100,000 received a serious injury. But because more students play football, higher numbers of students are injured.) Amazingly, no deaths have been reported in the past 20 years. And, the quantity of injured high-school athletes remains relatively low because rates of gymnastic participation are declining. In 2011, only 561 male and 1,486 female gymnasts competed at a high-school level: Most high school gymnasts compete in private clubs with well-trained coaches, Mueller says.

http://www.orthop.washington.edu/?q=patient-care/articles/sports/common-sports-injuries-and-sports-injury-prevention-tips.html

Common Sports Injuries and Sports Injury Prevention Tips

Gymnastics.  Injuries most commonly occur in the ankles, feet, lower back, knees, wrists, and hands, often from overuse or simple stress. Injuries are rarely severe, but if left untreated they can lead to chronic pain and bone fractures. Each year, more than 86,000 gymnastics-related injuries are treated in hospitals, doctors’ offices, clinics, and ambulatory surgery centers.

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