Pharmacogenetic analysis of sex differences in opioid antinociception in rats

Antinociceptive tests were conducted with the high-efficacy micro-opioid morphine, and the less efficacious opioids buprenorphine, butorphanol and nalbuphine. Baseline nociceptive latencies were consistently higher in males than their female counterparts. Sex differences in opioid antinociception were observed in all strains tested, with the opioids being more potent and/or effective in males. The magnitude of the sex differences was related to the relative efficacy of the opioid, with morphine, buprenorphine, butorphanol and nalbuphine being on average 2.2-, 2.6-, 15.9- and 11.9-fold more potent in males.

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